Ramadan (Arabic: رَمَضَان‎, romanizedRamaḍān [ra.ma.dˤaːn]),[a] also spelled Ramazan, Ramzan, Ramadhan or Ramathan, is the ninth month of the Islamic calendar,[9] observed by Muslims worldwide as a month of fasting (sawm), prayer, reflection and community.[10] A commemoration of Muhammad’s first revelation,[11] the annual observance of Ramadan is regarded as one of the Five Pillars of Islam[12] and lasts twenty-nine to thirty days, from one sighting of the crescent moon to the next.[13][14]

Fasting from sunrise to sunset is fard (obligatory) for all adult Muslims who are not acutely or chronically ill, travelling, elderly, breastfeeding, diabetic, or menstruating.[15] The predawn meal is referred to as suhur, and the nightly feast that breaks the fast is called iftar.[16][17] Although fatwas have been issued declaring that Muslims who live in regions with a midnight sun or polar night should follow the timetable of Mecca,[18] it is common practice to follow the timetable of the closest country in which night can be distinguished from day.[19][20][21]

The spiritual rewards (thawab) of fasting are believed to be multiplied during Ramadan.[22] Accordingly, Muslims refrain not only from food and drink, but also tobacco products, sexual relations, and sinful behavior,[23][24] devoting themselves instead to salat (prayer) and recitation of the Quran.[25][26] (Source)

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